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Understanding Constructed Languages: An Overview and Examples of the Most Popular Conlangs

What is Constructed Language?

The concept of Constructed Languages, or Conlangs, refers to languages that have been intentionally designed and developed by individuals or groups. Unlike natural languages, which organically evolve within a culture over time, these languages are purposefully crafted for specific uses. These uses can range from fictional works, linguistic experiments, to serving as an auxiliary international language meant to facilitate global communication.

Below is a list of some popular constructed languages. Please note that these languages have been deliberately designed for a specific purpose or setting, contrasting with languages that have naturally developed over time. The languages are arranged chronologically, based on the earliest known date of their publication or appearance.

Solresol (Published in 1866) 

  – Founder: François Sudre

  – Purpose: A musical language, designed to be able to be spoken, sung, written in musical notation, and even visually represented with colors.

Volapük (Founded in 1879) 

  – Founder: Johann Martin Schleyer

  – Purpose: An international auxiliary language, meant to facilitate communication between people speaking different native languages.

Esperanto (Founded in 1887) 

  – Founder: L. L. Zamenhof

  – Purpose: To create an easy-to-learn, politically neutral language that would foster peace and international understanding.

Ido (Founded in 1907) 

  – Founder: Louis Couturat and others

  – Purpose: A reform of Esperanto, intended to be more consistent and easier to use.

Interlingua (Founded in 1951) 

  – Founder: International Auxiliary Language Association

  – Purpose: An international auxiliary language, based on the common elements of major Romance languages.

Newspeak (First published in 1949) 

  – Founder: George Orwell (in his novel “1984”)

  – Purpose: A dystopian fictional language, designed to limit free thought and self-expression.

– Sindarin and Quenya (First published posthumously in 1977) 

  – Founder: J.R.R. Tolkien

  – Purpose: Fictional languages for the Elves in Tolkien’s “Middle-earth” legendarium.

– Klingon (First published in 1985) 

  – Founder: Marc Okrand for Paramount Pictures

  – Purpose: A fictional language for the species of the same name in the “Star Trek” franchise.

– Lojban (Founded in 1987) 

  – Founder: Logical Language Group

  – Purpose: A language based on predicate logic, intended for linguistic research, including research into artificial intelligence.

– Na’vi (First appeared in 2009) 

   – Founder: Paul Frommer for 20th Century Fox

   – Purpose: A fictional language for the species of the same name in James Cameron’s film “Avatar”.

– Dothraki and High Valyrian (First appeared in 2011 and 2013 respectively) 

   – Founder: David J. Peterson for HBO

   – Purpose: Fictional languages for the “Game of Thrones” television series.

Toki Pona (First published in 2001) 

   – Founder: Sonja Elen Kisa

   – Purpose: A philosophical language, meant to simplify thoughts and communication based on Taoist principles.

Please note that this list is not exhaustive; there are many other constructed languages out there, each with its unique characteristics and purposes.


This article traverses the history of constructed languages, charting their development from Solresol in 1866 to Toki Pona. We reveal why and how these languages were created, shedding light on the minds that envisioned entire linguistic systems and the cultural phenomena they ignited.


While we strive for accuracy, the world of conlangs is vast and varied. As such, our exploration cannot cover every constructed language. Moreover, as language evolves, so too might the statuses and features of the conlangs discussed.


List of constructed languages – Wikipedia.

Constructed language – Wikipedia.

List of languages by first written account – Wikipedia.

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